The following concept map outlines various team models as presented by Mathieu, Maynard, Rapp, and Gilson (2008). The outline provided below comes from Mathieu et al.’s (2008) article. The information provided in the outline comes from Mathieu et al. (2008) unless a different reference is listed. If a separate reference is listed it is provided in Mathieu et al.’s original article. This outline comes from the concept map that I composed from the article’s content.
Mathieu, J., Maynard, T. M., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997-2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of Management, 34, 410-476. doi:10.1177/0149206308316061
Reference for the pdf Image:
Turner, John (2017): TEAM Models_Mathieu2008.pdf. figshare.
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Antecedent factors that enable and constrain members’ interactions.
Individual Team Member Characteristics
Team Level Factors
External Leader Influences
Organizational and Contextual Factors
Organizational Design Features
Describe members’ interactions directed toward task accomplishment. Processes are important because they describe how team inputs are transformed into outcomes.
Results and by-products of team activity that are valued by one or more constituencies.
Members’ Affective Reactions
Team Composition Inputs
Team composition research focuses on the attributes of team members and the impact of the combination of such attributes on processes, emergent states, and ultimately outcomes.
The form of emergence that underlies the average member attributes is referred to as a summary index. The pooled value of a characteristic is presumed to affect a team, regardless of how that characteristic is distributed among members.
The Big Five
Openness to Experience
Locus of Control
The knowledge, skills, and abilties (KSAs) needed for effective performance differ from those needed by individuals working alone. The interaction required in team settings introduces a unique set of teamwork KSAs.
The functional amount of cognitive ability in teams does in deed predict team performance across a broad variety of team contexts.
An individual’s approach to achievement situations.
Propensity for accomplishing work as part of a team as opposed to individually.
Group Value Consensus
Openness to Diversity
Diversity factors consider the influence of heterogeneity of team member characteristics on team mediators and outcomes.
Three-Way Diversity Interaction
The range of experience and expertise available to a team.
Bunderson & Sutcliffe (2002). Comparing alternative conceptualizations of functional diversity in management teams: Process and performance effects. Academy of Management Journal, 45(5), 875-893.
Dominant Function Diversity
The diversity of functional experts on a team.
Intrapersonal Functional Diversity
The aggregate functional breadth of team members.
Attitudes / Values
Faultlines refers to hypothetical dividing lines that aplit a group into subgroups based on one or more attributes (e.g., demographic, functional and educational background, geographical location, etc.).
Position and Status Issues
Research that examines network features associated with teams focuses on the social connections (ties) that link members between and within teams.
An informative way to characterize teams is according to their underlying substantive nature, such as in terms of their degree and type of interdependence.
Interdependence describes the extent to which team members cooperate and work interactively to complete tasks.
Team members’ level of interaction (or interdependence) is shaped by their individual skill sets and the extent to which they must share resources and technologies (i.e., input interdependence).
The way in which the work is structured (process interdependence) can also affect the level of interdependence within the team.
Individual feedback and rewards should be linked to the group’s performance in order to motivate group-oriented behavior.
Three dimensions of team virtuality: (a) the degree of reliance on virtual tools, (b) the informational value of the mediums used, and (c) the synchronicity of interactions.
Four dimensions of virtuality: geographic dispersion, electronic dependence, structural dynamism, and national diversity.
Training refers to a systematic, planned intervention aimed at facilitating the development of job-related KSAs.
Individual -vs- Intact-Team Training
Training is inextricably linked to the larger organizational context and cannot be isolated from the larger system that it supports. It inherently recognizes the linkages among factors crossing the individual, team/unit, and organizational levels of analysis.
External Team Leaders
External leaders are responsible for, and has authority for, the team’s performance. Team leadership is an important ingredient in realizing team affective and behavior-based outcomes.
Leadership is viewed primarily as an input factor that influences processes (e.g., coordination, creativity processes, knowledge sharing, problem management/action strategies, team learning), emergent states (e.g., affective tone, efficacy, empowerment, potency, organizational and team commitment, task, leader, and team satisfaction), and performance.
Team coaching refers to direct interaction with a team intended to help members make coordinated and task-appropriate use of their collective resources in accomplishing the team’s work.
Identifying Team Problems
Cueing and Rewarding Self-Management
Shared leadership refers to an emergent team property resulting from leadership functions being distributed across multiple team members rather than arising from a single, formal leader.
Functional departmentalization occurs when individuals within a team are organized according to the similarity of the tasks they will perform.
Divisional Team Departmentalization
Divisional team departmentalization organizes individuals within the team based on the geographic area served and/or the specific type of product for which they are responsible.
Pair-Based Team Structures
Ellis et al. (2003) argued that whereas the functional and divisional structures predispose teams to having either unique or shared information, respectively, neither type of team structure offers “the optimal balance between commonly and uniquely distributed information within the team” (p. 824). Researchers advocated a compromise-type of structure which they labeled pair-based team structures.
Pair-based team structures motivate members to share expertise and responsibilities, and thereby “may allow for the best mix of common and unique information within the team” (Ellis et al., 2003, 824).
Teams operate in contexts that facilitate or hinder their functioning. Moreover, contexts can be distinguished in terms of features of the embedding organizational system, as well as features of the larger environment outside of the organization.
We define organizational contextual variables as sources of influence that are external to the team, yet emanate from the larger organizational system within which they are nested.
Human Resource Systems
Multiteam Systems Coordination
“Organizational teams are coupled to one another and to the organization as a whole, but their boundaries are distinct enough to give them a separate identity. This is similar to the notion of loose coupling, or partial inclusion. In this sense, boundaries of teams both separate and link the work done by teams” (Gully, 2000, p. 32).
Multiteam Systems (MTS); a particluar organizational arrangement whereby teams of teams work collaboratively to achieve collective goals.
We define environmental contextual variables as sources of influence that emanate from outside of the organization yet influence team functioning.
Cultural Influence on Teams
Average Individual Orientations
A Team Climate Variable
A Description of Some Larger Context
Taskwork describes functions that individuals must perform to accomplish the team’s task.
Teamwork describes the interaction between team members.
During transition phases team members focus on activities such as mission analysis, planning, goal specification, and formulating strategies.
During action phases members concentrate on task accomplishments, monitoring progress and systems, coordinating team members, as well as monitoring and backing up their fellow team members.
Monitoring Progress and Systems
Coordinating Team Members
Monitoring and Backing Up fellow team members
The interpersonal category includes conflict management, motivation and confidence building, and affect management and may be salient across episodic phases.
Motivation and Confidence Building
Team Creative Processes
Team creative processes have been defined as members working together in such a manner that they link ideas from multiple sources, delve into unknown areas to find better or unique approaches to a problem, or seek out novel ways of performing a task. Creativity is a vital driver of team effectiveness.
Teams who brainstorm are more satisfied and pleased with the ideas they generate.
Marks et al. (2001) described emergent states as “cognitive, motivational, and affective states of teams [that are]… dynamic in nature and vary as function of team context, inputs, processes, and outcomes” (p. 357).
Team efficacy has been defined as a shared belief in a group’s collective capability to organize and execute courses of action required to produce given levels of goal attainment.
Potency is generally defined as a collective belief regarding the team’s ability to be successful.
The primary distinction between the two is that efficacy relates to the team’s belief that it can be successful on a specific task whereas potency refers to a team’s more general sense of its capabilities in relation to various tasks and different contexts.
Structural Empowerment considers the impact that the actual practice of delegating authority and responsibility can have on performance.
Psychological empowerment is a team’s collective belief that they have the authority to control their proximal work environment and are responsible for their team’s functioning.
Climate refers to the set of norms, attitudes, and expectations that individuals perceive to operate in a specific social context.
Learning Transfer Climate
Service climate has been conceptualized as employees’ assessment of the organization’s concern for customer well-being.
Distinct group-level cognition about how a work group as a whole is treated.
Cohesion, the commitment of team members to the team’s overall task or to each other.
The willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the trustor, irrespective of the ability to monitor or control the other party (Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman, 1995, p. 712).
Shared Mental Models (SMM)
Shared Mental Models (SMM) is an organized understanding or mental representation of knowledge that is shared by team members.
Task and team have been most prevalent in research. One development has been to determine whether it is the sharedness of mental models that is most critical to team performance, as compared to the accuracy or quality of the underlying mental models.
Task SMMs suggest that team members hold a common schema regarding their task and the potential role that the broader environment may play.
Team SMMs represent a shared understanding among team membes about how they will interact with one another.
The shared understanding of strategic priorities among managers at the top, middle, and/or operating levels of the organization.
In contrast to SMMs, which consider overlapping mental representations on various factors, strategic consensus represents the agreement on strategic priorities.
Team learning is said to represent an ongoing process of reflection and action, through which teams acquire, share, combine, and apply knowledge. It reflects an active set of team processes, and yet team learning is also referred to as knowledge being embedded within the team.
Reflection and Action
Embedding knowledge requires that teams codify what they have learned by documenting their work processes and thus converting tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge.
Knowledge codification represents a state that characterizes what a team has learned at any given time.
A state of behavioral integration exists when teams engage in the three processes: quantity and quality (richness, timeliness, accuracy) of information exchange, collaborative behavior, and joint decision making.
Quantity and Quality of Information Exchange
Transactive memory systems (TMSs) have been defined as the collection of knowledge possessed by each team member and a collective awareness of who knows what.
One-to-one alignment between team characteristics and organizational outcomes.
Team performance behaviors and outcomes
Performance behaviors are actions that are relevant to achieving goals.
Team Process Improvement
Cognitive Task Performance
Performance outcomes are the consequences or results of performance behaviors.
Work Crew Problem Management
Supervisor Rated Performance
Supervisor Ratings of Accuracy & Quality
Composite Measure of Archival Indicies
Instructor-Rated Performance Scores
External Customer Satisfaction
Role-based outcomes capture the extent to which members exhibit the requisite competencies necessary to perform their jobs.
Affect refers to whether the team had a good atmosphere and if it was treated with respect.
Collective Sense of Belonging
Team Membership Over Time
The extent to which individuals wish to remain as members of the team
Team Performance Criteria
a) tied to the function and tasks of the teams being studied
b) differentiated into constituent parts rather than a general all-encompasing composite
c) combined using a formally articulated combination algorithm such as in the balanced scorecard technique
A cyclical process of the IMO model.