Research

Teamwork – 9 Cs

Teamwork is influenced by a number of core processes. Dinh & Salas differentiated between internal and external dynamics. Internal dynamics or core processes and emerging states involve six dynamics; cooperation, conflict, coordination, communication, coaching, and cognition. Likewise, external dynamics or influencing conditions consist of three dynamics; context, composition, and culture.

Others have identified team performance phases as consisting of eight Cs; communication, cooperation, coordination, coaching, cognition, cohesion, collective efficacy, and collective identity (Weaver, Feitosa, Salas, Seddon, & Vozenilek, 2013, p. 15).

The outline presented below represents the combination of both sets of core processes and emerging states. The aggregate resulted in a total of nine core processes; cooperation, conflict, coordination, communication, coaching, cognition, cohesion, collective efficacy, and collective identity.

The concept map provided here is the map that generated to outline provided in this blog:

Turner, John (2017): Teamwork 9 Cs.png. figshare.

https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5143210.v1

Retrieved: 13:49, Jun 25, 2017 (GMT)

 

Core Processes and Emergent Factors

Collective Efficacy

Belief in the ability of the team as a unit to accomplish shared goals (Bandura, 1986; as cited in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

The collective sense of competence or perceived empowerment to control the team’s performance or environment (Katz-Navon & Erez, 2005; as cited in Duhn & Salas, 2017, p. 18).

Cohesion

Affective attraction to the team, team goals, and desire to remain part of the team (Zaccaro & Lowe, 1986; Beal, Cohen, Burke, & McLendon, 2003; as cited in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

The degree to which team members desire to remain in the team and are committed to the team goal (Forsyth, 2009; as cited in Dihn & Salas, Salas, 2017, p. 18).

Conflict

The perceived incompatibility in interests, beliefs, or views held by one or more team members (Jehn, 1995; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

Cognition-Based

Team member cognitive states (overlapping cognitive representation of team member knowledge, team member representation of tasks, equipment, working relationships, and situations; Turner, 2015, p. 161).

Representation: Relationship or structure of content (similarity; Turner, 2015, p. 161).

Elicitation: Content of team knowledge (accuracy; Turner, 2015, p. 161).

Relationship-Based

Interpersonal/social (non-work related or non-task related issues, affective issues between team members; Turner, 2015, p. 161).

When interpersonal differences create annoyance or tension among members (Dinh, 2017, p. 19).

Task-Based

Task Related (task awareness, task achievement, task definition, tools required to obtain the task, expertise required to obtain the task, discussions and disagreements relating to task achievement; Turner, 2015, p. 161).

When there are differences in perspective regarding the execution of tasks (Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

Process Conflict

Task strategy and task coordination (management and coordination of task-related activities including delegation of duties among team members; Turner, 2015, p. 161).

Contribution Conflict: Inconsistent team member contributions (Behfar, Mannix, Peterson, & Trochin, 2010; as cited in Turner, 2015).

Logistical Conflict: logistical or timing, coordination among members (Behfar, Mannix, Peterson, & Trochin, 2010; as cited in Turner, 2015).

The division and delegation of tasks and responsibilities among team member (Behfar, Peterson, Manniz, & Trochim, 2008; Jehn, 1997; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

Collective Identity

Perceptions of oneness with a particular group (Ashforth & Mael, 1989; as cited in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

Coaching

Direct interaction with a team intended to help members make coordinated and task-appropriate use of their collective resources in accomplishing the team’s work (Hackman & Wageman, 2005; as cited in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

An enactment of leadership behaviors to establish goals and set direction towards the successful accomplishment thereof (Fleishman et al., 1992; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 23).

Coaching refers to the host of activities performed by both individuals and teams for the sake of team effectiveness (Hackman & Wageman, 2005; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 23):

  • Framing
  • Sensemaking
  • Role Modeling
  • Direction Setting

Cooperation

Motivation and desire to engage in coordinative and adaptive behavior (Fiore, Salas, Cuevas, & Bowers, 2003; as cited in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

Captures the motivational drivers of teamwork (Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 17):

Goal Commitment

The determination to achieve team goals (Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

“Checking-In”

A discussion of prior and relevant experiences before task performance (Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

Psychological Safety

The shared feeling of safety within a team allowing for interpersonal risk taking (Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

Team Learning Orientation

The shared belief regarding the degree to which team goals are geared towards learning (Bunderson & Sutcliffe, 2003; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

Team / Collective Orientation

The general preference for, and belief in, the importance of teamwork (Eby & Dobbins, 1997; Jackson, Colquitt, Wesson, & Zapata-Phelan, 2006; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 19).

Trust

The shared beiief that all team members will contribute appropriately and as necessary and protect the team (Bandow, 2001; Salas, Sims, & Burke, 2005; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 18).

Cohesion

The degree to which team members desire to remain in the team and are committed to the team goal (Forsyth, 2009; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 18).

Collective Efficacy

The collective sense of competence or perceived empowerment to control the team’s performance or environment (Katz-Navon & Erez, 2005; Mathieu, Gilson, & Ruddy, 2006; Zaccaro, Blaie, Peterson, & Zazanis, 1995; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 18).

Coordination

The process of orchestrating the sequence and timing of interdependent actions (Marks, Mathieu, & Zaccaro, 2001; as cited in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

The enactment of behavioral mechanisms necessary to perform a task and transform team resources into outcomes (Sims & Salas, 2007; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 20).

“Orchestrating the sequence and timing of interdependent actions” (marks et al., 2001, p. 363; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 20).

Explicit

Team members directly and intentionally plan and communicate in order to manage interdependencies (Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 20).

Implicit

Members anticipate team needs and organically, dynamically adjust their behaviors without instruction; Rico, Sanchez-Manzanares, Gil, & Gibson, 2008; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 20).

Communication

Exchange of information that teams use to perform such tasks as negotiating their goals, making decisions, and providing one another task status information (Fussel, Kraut, Lerch, Scherlis, McNally, & Caduz, 1998; as citied in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

We define communication in teams as a reciprocal process of team members’ transmission and receipt of information, which thereby reforms a team’s attitudes, behaviors, and cognitions (Craig, 1999; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 22).

A transactional process, in which communicators can send and receive information simultaneously and influence these pathways (Barnlund, 2008; as citied in Dinh, 2017, pp. 21-22).

A linear-like transfer of information between sender and receiver (Deetz, 1994; as citied in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 21).

Cognition

A foundational component of effective team processes, as it allows teams to enter performance episodes with a mutual baseline understanding of how to engage in the task at hand (Salas et al., 2015; as citied in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 24).

Detecting and recognize[ing] pertinent cues, make decisions, problem solving, storing and remembering relevant information, planning, and seeking and acquiring necessary knowledge (Orasanu, 1990; as citied in Weaver et al., 2013, p. 15).

Team cognition may also involve: knowledge of roles and responsibilities; team mission objectives and norms; the situation within which the team is operating; and familiarity with teammate knowledge, skills, and abilities (Wilman et al., 2012; as citied in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 24).

The shared understanding among team members that develops as a result of team member interactions, including shared mental models and transactive memory systems (Klimoski & Mohammed, 1994; as citied in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 24).

Transactive Memory Systems

The collective, shared memory of a group in two sense: internal (what individuals know personally) and external (what individuals know can be retrieved from other sources, including from other team members; Peltokorpi, 2008; as cited in Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 24).

Shared Mental Memory

A knowledge-based team competency essential to team effectiveness (Dinh & Salas, 2017, p. 24).

References

Dinh, J. V., & Salas, E. (2017). Factors that influence teamwork. In E. Salas, & R. Rico (Eds.). The Wiley Blackwell handbook of the psychology of teamwork and collaborative processes, pp. 15-41. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

Sala, E., & Frush, K. (Eds.). (2017). The Wiley handbook of the psychology of team working and collaborative processes. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

Turner, J. R. (2015). Tea cognition conflict: A conceptual review identifying cognition conflict as a new team conflict construct. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 29, 145-167. doi:10.1002/piq.21219

Weaver, S. J., Feitosa, J., Salas, E., Seddon, R., & Vozenilek, J. A. (2013). The theoretical drivers and models of team performance and effectiveness for patient safety. In E. Salas, & K. Frush (Eds.), Improving patient safety through teamwork and team training, pp. 3-26. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

 

2 Trackbacks / Pingbacks

  1. Influencing Conditions – TEAM SCIENCE
  2. Team Composition and Team Performance – TEAM SCIENCE

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: