A New Multiteam (MTS) Effectiveness Model

In our research study, we expanded existing team effectiveness frameworks by including the multiteam systems (MTS) level of analysis and team temporal processes (Marks, Mathieu & Zaccaro, 2001). In this new publication we synthesized team effectiveness characteristics for each level of analysis (individual, team, mutliteam system) and mapped them against team temporal processes (transition, action, interpersonal). The table below highlights this synthesized model.


Our article is available online and is open source at:

Table: MTS Effectiveness Components

Temporal Process MTS (boundary spanner) Team (component team) Individual
Mission analysis formulation and planning Closed–loop communication, duration, genesis, hierarchical arrangement, network, organizational structure Mission analysis, planning, team mission  
Goal specification National culture, organizational culture, organizational diversity, organizational goals Accurate problem models, task characteristics, team goal commitment  
Strategy formation


Collaboration with interagency partners, communication structure, functional diversity, geographically dispersion of teams, mode of communication, organizational diversity, organizational policies, power distribution, stage of development, temporal orientation, training, transformation of development Developing strategy, finishing  
Monitoring progress toward goals   Cue–strategy associations, helping, mutual performance monitoring, problem detection, workload sharing Leadership (shared), task–related assertiveness
Systems monitoring Resources Gathering information  
Teams monitoring and backup responses   Adapting, backup supporting behavior, helping, learning from team’s best member, team orientation, workload sharing Openness to change
Coordination activities   Coordination horizontal, implicit coordination strategies, interdependence, planning, team autonomy Individual roles, planning, self–management skills, work experience
Conflict management Conflict resolution    
Motivation and confidence building Motivation of others, rewards    
Affect management   Mutual trust, peer control, shared mental models (TMS), social identity, team cohesion, team empowerment, team learning orientation, team potency, team psychological safety, team satisfaction Individual autonomy, general skills, trust



Marks, M. A., Methieu, J. E., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). A temporally based framework and taxonomy of team processes. The Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 356-376. doi:10.5465/AMR.2001.4845785

Turner, J. R., Baker, R., Ali, Z., & Thurlow, N. (2020). A new multiteam system (MTS) effectiveness model. Systems, 8, 21. doi:10.3390/systems8020012

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